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Low Temperature Baths

Two types of systems are shown in this table. One involves pouring liquid nitrogen into a solvent by stirring until a slush is formed. The temperature may be maintained by periodically adding nitrogen to maintain the slush. These data are taken from R. E. Randeau, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 11, 124 (1966). The second system involves addition of small lumps of dry ice to the solvent until a slight excess of dry ice coated with frozen solvent remains. Again, temperature may be maintained by periodically adding more dry ice. These data are taken fro the most part from A. M. Phipps and D. N. Hume, J. Chem. Educ., 45, 664 (1968). The latter reference describes the use of the dry ice method in mixtures of ortho and meta xylene of varying composition.

System

oC

System

oC

p-Xylene/N2

13

Carbitol acetate/CO2

-67

p-Dioxane/N2

12

t-Butyl amine/N2

-68

Cyclohexane/N2

6

Ethanol/CO2

-72

Benzene/N2

5

Trichloroethylene/N2

-73

Formamide/N2

2

Butyl acetate/N2

-77

Aniline/N2

-6

Acetone/CO2

-77

Cycloheptane/N2

-12

Isoamyl acetate/N2

-79

Benzonitrile/N2

-13

Acrylonitrile/N2

-82

Ethylene glycol/CO2

-15

Sulfur dioxide/CO2

-82

o-Dichlorobenzene/N2

-18

Ethyl acetate/N2

-84

Tetrachloroethane/N2

-22

Ethyl methyl ketone/N2

-86

Carbon tetrachloride/N2

-23

Acrolein/N2

-88

Carbon tetrachloride/CO2

-23

Nitroethane/N2

-90

m-Dichlorobenzene/N2

-25

Heptane/N2

-91

Nitromethane/N2

-29

Cyclopentane/N2

-93

o-Xylene/N2

-29

Hexane/N2

-94

Bromobenzene/N2

-30

Toluene/N2

-95

Iodobenzene/N2

-31

Methanol/N2

-98

Thiophene/N2

-38

Diethyl ether/CO2

-100

3-Heptanone/CO2

-38

n-Propyl iodide/N2

-101

Acetonitrile/N2

-41

n-Butyl iodide/N2

-103

Pyridine/N2

-42

Cyclohexene/N2

-104

Acetonitrile/CO2

-42

Isooctane/N2

-107

Chlorobenzene/N2

-45

Ethyl iodide/N2

-109

Cyclohexanone/CO2

-46

Carbon disulfide/N2

-110

m-Xylene/N2

-47

Butyl bromide/N2

-112

n-Butyl amine/N2

-50

Ethyl bromide/N2

-119

Diethyl carbitol/CO2

-52

Acetaldehyde/N2

-124

n-Octane/N2

-56

Methyl cyclohexane/N2

-126

Chloroform/CO2

-61(-77)

n-Pentane/N2

-131

Chloroform/N2

-63

1,5-Hexadiene/N2

-141

Methyl iodide/N2

-66

i-Pentane/N2

-160

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